Under the orders, a guardian has full parental responsibility for all aspects of raising a child but the children’s relationship with their birth parent is not legally severed.
Between 2007 and 2011, the number of children in care in the borough has fallen from 365 to 250, although it has one of lowest percentages of children adopted each year. Conservative Councillor Harry Phibbs says it is “bucking the national trend”. He compared the decrease in Hammersmith and Fulham to the general trend across England, where the total number of children looked after by local authorities is up by 9 per cent since 2007.
The number of special guardianship orders has risen steadily since they were introduced in 2005. In 2011, 19 per cent of children who left care in Hammersmith and Fulham did so as a result of the orders, compared with 13 per cent in 2008, the best record in England, according to the Department for Education. But the borough still has one of the worst records for children in care. In 2011 the figure was 0.91%, almost double the national average.
Special guardianship orders were introduced in December 2005, under the Adoption and Children’s Act 2002, to provide an option to provide permanent placements for children for whom adoption was not feasible, for instance due to the number of potential adopters. They are popular with the families of children in care who want to become permanent guardians. Research by the Social Policy Research Unit at the University of York found that most take-up came from relatives, particularly grandparents.
According to the York Social Policy Research Unit “there is a high degree of goodwill towards special guardianships amongst child welfare professionals… Overwhelmingly, carers in the study also welcomed it.”
The trend for special guardianship orders to increase while adoptions decrease, is common across the country, according to Jack Smith, of The Who Cares? Trust, a charity working to improve the lives of children in care. He said: “The number of children in permanent care is going up, however there has been an overall decrease in adoptions.”
Mr Smith says that the orders are particularly successful with older children, as “they do not forcibly break the links with their parents”. Older children are much less likely to be adopted than the under 5s. In the year to March 2011, 97 per cent of children adopted were under 9.
Councillor Caroline Needham, Hammersmith and Fulham’s shadow cabinet member for education and children’s services, praises the borough’s efforts: “That Hammersmith and Fulham has a high level of special guardianship orders is a very praiseworthy achievement.”
She agrees that it is good for children to retain links with their birth families: “It’s good that children are raised by somebody who loved their mothers, and who understands why their mother wasn’t able to look after them.” She adds: “I’ve always taken the view that a good outcome for children is above politics.”
Special guardianship orders are also cheaper for councils than keeping children in care. Hammersmith and Fulham said recently that “over 30 per cent of the total budget of the council’s children’s services budget is spent on just 0.6 per cent of children living in the borough. The council spends, on average, around £1,000 per week to care for a looked-after child. Over the past five years, 50 children in H&F have left care with a permanency order, which equates to a saving of around £2.5 million.” A permanency order involves adoption, or a special guardianship order.
But there are questions about the allowances guardians receive for caring for a child under a special guardianship order. Payments are means-tested, and the final decision remains with the local authority. The York University research found that “many [carers] received less money than they did as foster carers”, and that there were “continuing concerns about financial security”.
Cllr Needham said: “My view is that [carers] should get an allowance from the age which the child is their responsibility up until the age of 18, but sometimes guardians only receive it for a certain number of years.” She plans to look into the question of carers’ allowances.
Hammersmith and Fulham do still have a high proportion of children in care, with the borough’s ratio almost double the national average. Councillor Phibbs says that the high number of children in care in Hammersmith and Fulham is “partly to do with the affluence of the area.” He said: “We have made a big deal about our progress, but we need to keep going with the reduction. We do need to be better; there is still some way to catch up.”
Percentage of children who ceased to be in care due to adoption
|Rank||Name||3 Year average (2009, 10, 11)||2011|
|129||Hammersmith and Fulham||7||11|
|139||Kensington and Chelsea||6||8|
Percentage of children who ceased to be in care due to a special guardianship order
|Rank||Name||3 Year average (2009, 10, 11)||2011|
|1||Hammersmith and Fulham||16||19|
|53||Kensington and Chelsea||6||n/a|